Sunday, 19 April, 2015 Search
Logical Reasoning (LR)

Logical Reasoning is considered as the coherent section of CAT. In CAT, LR questions usually come with 2/3 bits. A paragraph is given with full of information followed by 2/3 questions. You need to read it and use your logic to answer the questions. In 2 sections CAT paper there is no separate section on LR but it is expected to be combined in Verbal Ability section.

The main idea behind Logical Reasoning is to use the information and preconditions to make a conclusion

Most problems give a variety of conditions and you must use an "if"-"then" approach. It's important that you read the whole problem, and choose the best hint or clue before starting to solve the problem. When practicing logic with reasoning making a chart or drawing a picture are good strategies. Before starting any LR problem it s advised to keep few points in mind.

Important Tips for Logical Reasoning

Before you try to answer a few sample questions, here are some general test-taking tips that should help you with the Logical Reasoning section.

Study the question carefully. A brief explanation of why each choice is correct or incorrect follows each practice question. If you understand this reasoning for the practice items, you will do well on the actual assessment.

NEVER assume or use any information that the question fails to give you. This is NOT an assessment of how much you know about economics in general. Consider ONLY the information given in each reading passage when choosing among the alternative responses.

Read both the factual passage and the sentence completion instruction carefully. Both must be considered in making your choice.

Be sure to read all the response choices carefully before choosing one.

In questions that ask you to select a valid conclusion, always choose the one conclusion that must definitely follow from the information you are given. In questions that ask you to find the invalid alternative, choose the one conclusion that does not definitely follow from the information.

Pay special attention to words like "all," "some," or "none" when you read the factual information each question gives you. Other qualifying words such as "other than," "only" or "unless" are important, too. These words can play a critical part in precisely specifying the facts to be used in your reasoning.

Pay attention to negative prefixes also, such as non-, un-, or dis-. These can be crucial to specifying the basic facts in the paragraph.

"Test-taking" courses or your college instructors may have advised you to avoid any response choices that contain the quantifiers "all" or "none." In both the practice questions here and in the actual economist assessment, these words are NOT signs of incorrect response choices. They will appear in both correct and incorrect response choices.

Pay close attention to the word "ONLY" and to the phrase "IF AND ONLY IF." Saying "The door will open IF AND ONLY IF both keys are used" sets up a highly specific condition that must be met. There is exactly one way to open the door-you must use both keys. By contrast, if the sentence says, "The door will open if the key is used," there may be several ways to open the door besides by using the key.

The questions in the assessment will vary in difficulty level, and difficult questions will be mixed in with easier ones throughout the assessment. When you encounter a question that is difficult for you, try drawing diagrams or other schematic notes on the "scratch" paper provided to support and confirm your thought processes. Also, bear in mind that you can stop working on a difficult question temporarily and return to it later.

PROPOSITION AND LOGICAL DEDUCTION

Proposition

In Logic, any categorical statement is termed as the Proposition.

A Proposition (or a categorical statement) is a statement that asserts that either a part of, or the whole of, one set of objects - the set identified by the subject term in the sentence expressing that statement - either is included in, or is excluded from, another set - the set identified by the predicate term in that sentence.

The standard form of a proposition is:

Quantifier + Subject + Copula + Predicate

Thus, the proposition consists of four parts:

Quantifier: The words 'all', 'no' and 'some' are called quantifiers because they specify a quantity 'All' and 'no' are universal quantifiers because they refer to every object in a certain set, while the quantifier 'some' is a particular quantifier because it refers to at least one existing object in a certain set.

Subject (denoted by 'S'): The subject is that about which something is said.

Predicate (denoted by 'P'): The predicate is the part of the proposition denoting that which is affirmed or denied about the subject.

Copula: The copula is that part of the proposition which denotes the relation between the subject and the predicate.

Examples:

Four-Fold Classification of Propositions:

A proposition is said to have a universal quantity if it begins with a universal quantifier and a particular quantity if it begins with a particular quantifier. Besides, propositions which assert something about the inclusion of the whole or a part of one set in the other are said to have affirmative quality, while those which deny the inclusion of the whole or a part of one set in the other are said to have a negative quality. Also, a term is distributed in a proposition if it refers to all members of the set of objects denoted by that term. Otherwise, it is said to be undistributed. Based on the above facts, propositions can be classified into four types:

1) Universal Affirmative Proposition (denoted by A): It distributes only the subject i.e. the predicate is not interchangeable with the subject while maintaining the validity of the proposition.

e.g., All snakes are reptiles. This is proposition A since we cannot say 'All reptiles are snakes'.

2) Universal Negative Proposition (denoted by E): It distributes both the subject and the predicate i.e. an entire class of predicate term is denied to the entire class of the subject term, as in the proposition.

e.g., No boy is intelligent.

3) Particular Affirmative Proposition (denoted by I): It distributes neither the subject nor the predicate.

e.g., Some men are foolish. Here, the subject term 'men' is used not for all but only for some men and similarly the predicate term 'foolish' is affirmed for a part of subject class. So, both are undistributed.

4) Particular Negative Proposition (denoted by O): It distributes only the predicate. e.g., Some animals are not wild. Here, the subject term 'animals' is used only for a part of its class and hence is undistributed while the predicate term 'wild' is denied in entirety to the subject term and hence is distributed. These facts can be summarized as follows:

 Statement Form Quantity Quality Distributed (A): All S is P. Universal Affirmative S only (E): No S is P. Universal Negative Both S and P (I): Some S is P. Particular Affirmative Neither S nor P (O): Some S is not P Particular Negative P only

Logical Deduction:

The phenomenon of deriving a conclusion from a single proposition or a set of given propositions, is known as logical deduction. The given propositions are also referred to as the premises.

Two Inferential Processes of Deduction:

I.
Immediate Deductive Inference:

Here, conclusion is deduced from one of the given propositions, by any of the three ways -conversion, obversion and contraposition.

1) Conversion: The Conversion proceeds with interchanging the subject term and the predicate term i.e. the subject term of the premise becomes the predicate term of the conclusion and the predicate term of the premise becomes the subject of the conclusion. The given proposition is called converted, whereas the conclusion drawn from it is called its converse.

Table of Valid Conversions

 Converted Converse A: All S is P Ex. All pins are tops. I: Some P is S Some tops are pins. E: No S is P. Ex. No fish is whale. E: No P is S. No whale is fish. I: Some S is P. Ex. Some boys are poets. I: Some P is S. Some poets are boys. O: Some S is not P. No valid conversion

Note that in a conversion, the quality remains the same and the quantity may change.

2) Obversion: In obversion, we change the quality of the proposition and replace the predicate term by its complement.

Table of Valid Obversions

 Obverted Obverse A: All birds are mammals. E: No birds are non-mammals. E: No poets are singers. A: All poets are non-singers. I: Some nurses are doctors. O: Some nurses are not non-doctors. O: some politicians are not statesmen. I: Some politicians are non-statesmen

Contraposition: To obtain the contra positive of a statement, we first replace the subject and predicate terms in the proposition and then exchange both these terms with their complements.

Table of Valid Contrapositions

 Proposition Contra positive A: All birds are mammals. A: All non-mammals are non-birds. I: Some birds are mammals. I: Some non-mammals are non-birds.

Note: The valid converse, obverse or contra positive of a given proposition always logically follows from the proposition.

II.
Mediate Deductive Inference (SYLLOGISM): First introduced by Aristotle, a Syllogism is a deductive argument in which conclusion has to be drawn from two propositions referred to as the premises.

Example:

1. All lotus are flowers.

2. All flowers are beautiful.

3. All lotus are beautiful.

Clearly, the propositions 1 and 2 are the premises and the proposition 3, which follows from the first two propositions, is called the conclusion.

Term: In Logic, a term is a word or a combination of words, which by itself can be used as a subject or predicate of a proposition.

Syllogism is concerned with three terms:

1. Major Term: It is the predicate of the conclusion and is denoted by P (first letter of 'Predicate').

2. Minor Term: It is the subject of the conclusion and is denoted by S (first letter of 'Subject').

3. Middle Term: It is the term common to both the premises and is denoted by M (first letter of 'Middle').

Example:

Premises:

1. All dogs are animals.

2. All tigers are dogs.

Conclusion:

All tigers are animals.

Here 'animals' is the predicate of the conclusion and so it is the major term, P.

'Tigers' is the subject of the conclusion and so, it is the minor term, S.

'Dogs' is the term common to both the premises and so, it is the middle term, M.

Major And Minor Premises: Of the two premises, the major premise is that in which the middle term is the subject and the minor premise is that in which the middle term is the predicate.

RULES FOR DERIVING CONCLUSION FROM TWO GIVEN PREMISES:

1. The conclusion does not contain the middle term.

Example

Statements:

1. All men are girls.

2. Some girls are students.

Conclusions:

1. All girls are men.

2. Some girls are not students.

Since both the conclusions 1 and 2 contain the middle term 'girls', so neither of them can follow

2. No term can be distributed in the conclusion unless it is distributed in the premises.

Example

Statements:

1. Some dogs are goats.

2. All goats are cows.

Conclusions:

1. All cows are goats.

2. Some dogs are cows.

Statement 1 is an I-type proposition which distributes neither the subject nor the predicate.

Statement 2 is an A type proposition which distributes the subject i.e. 'goats' only.

Conclusion 1 is an A-type proposition which distributes the subject 'cow' only since the term 'cows' is distributed in conclusion 1 without being distributed in the premises, so conclusion 1 cannot follow.

3. The middle term (M) should he distribute at least once in the premises. Otherwise, the conclusion cannot follow.

For the middle term to be distributed in a premise

(i) M must be the subject if premise is an A proposition.

(ii) M must be subject or predicate if premise is an E proposition.

(iii) M must be predicate if premise is an O proposition.

Note that in an I proposition, which distributes neither the subject nor the predicate, the middle term cannot be distributed.

Example

Statements:

1. All fans are watches.

2. Some watches are black.

Conclusions:

1. All watches are fans.

2. Some fans are black.

In the premises, the middle term is 'watches'. Clearly, it is not distributed in the first premise which is an A proposition as it does not form its subject. Also, it is not distributed in the second premise which is an I proposition. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, so no conclusion follows.

4. No conclusion follows

(a) if both the premises are particular

Example

Statements:

1. Some books are pens.

2. Some pens are erasers.

Conclusions:

1. All books are erasers.

2. Some erasers are books.

Since both the premises are particular, so no definite conclusion follows.

(b) If both the premises are negative.

Example

Statements:

1. No flower is mango.

2. No mango is cherry.

Conclusions:

1. No flower is cherry.

2. Some cherries are mangoes. Since both the premises are negative, neither conclusion follows.

(c) If the major premise is particular and the minor premise is negative.

Example

Statements:

1. Some dogs are bulls.

2. No tigers are dogs.

Conclusions:

1. No dogs are tigers.

2. Some bulls are tigers.

Here, the first premise containing the middle term 'dogs' as the subject is the major premise and the second premise containing the middle term 'dogs' as the predicate is the minor premise. Since the major premise is particular and the minor premise is negative, so no conclusion follows.

5. If the middle term is distributed twice, the conclusion cannot be universal.

Example

Statements:

1. All fans are chairs.

2. No tables are fans.

Conclusions:

1. No tables are chairs.

2. Some tables are chairs.

Here, the first premise is an A proposition and so, the middle term 'fans' forming the subject is distributed. The second premise is an E proposition and so, the middle term 'fans' forming the predicate is distributed. Since the middle term is distributed twice, so the conclusion cannot be universal.

6. If one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.

Example

Statements:

1. All grasses are trees.

2. No tree is shrub.

Conclusions:

1. No grasses are shrubs.

2. Some shrubs are grasses.

Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. So, conclusion 2 cannot follow.

7. If one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular.

Example

Statements:

1. Some boys are thieves.

2. All thieves are dacoits.

Conclusions:

1. Some boys are dacoits.

2. All dacoits are boys.

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular. So, conclusion 2 cannot follow.

8. If both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion must be affirmative.

Example

Statements:

1. All women are mothers.

2. All mothers are sisters.

Conclusions:

1. All women are sisters.

2. Some women are not sisters.

Since both the premises are affirmative, the conclusion must be affirmative. So, conclusion 2 cannot follow.

9. If both the premises are universal, the conclusion must be universal.

Complementary pair:

A pair of contradictory statements i.e. a pair of statements such that if one is true, the other is false and when no definite conclusion can be drawn, either of them is bound to follow, is called a complementary pair. E and I-type propositions together form a complementary pair and usually either of them follows, in a case where we cannot arrive at a definite conclusion, using the rules of syllogism.

Let us study the various possible cases and draw all possible inferences in each case, along with verification through Venn diagrams.

Case 1: All men are boys. All boys are students.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of first premise i.e. 'Some boys are men' and the converse of second premise i.e. 'Some students are boys' both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative. Also, the conclusion should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'All men are students'. The converse of this conclusion i.e. 'Some students are men' also holds.

Case 2: All birds are animals. All fishes are animals.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of first premise i.e. 'Some animals are birds' and the converse of second premise i.e. 'Some animals are fishes' both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Both, being A-type propositions, distribute subject only. Thus, the middle term 'animals' is not distributed even once in the premises. So, no definite conclusion follows.

Case 3: All puppets are dolls. Some dolls are rattles.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some dolls are puppets' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'Some rattles are dolls', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

First premise, being an A-type proposition, distributes the subject only while the second premise, being an I-type proposition, distributes neither subject nor predicate. Since the middle term 'dolls' is not distributed even once in the premises, so no definite conclusion can be drawn.

Case 4: Some writers are players. All players are musicians.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some players are writers' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'Some musicians are players', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some writers are musicians'. The converse of this conclusion i.e. 'Some musicians are writers' also holds.

Case 5: All boxes are toys. Some boxes are clips.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some toys are boxes' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'Some clips are boxes', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'Some toys are clips'. The converse of this conclusion i.e. 'Some clips are toys' also holds.

Case 6: All buses are vans. Some cycles are vans.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some vans are buses' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'Some vans are cycles', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

First premise, being an A-type proposition, distributes subject only and the second premise, being an I-type proposition, distributes neither subject nor predicate. So, the middle term 'vans' is not distributed even once in the premises. Hence, no definite conclusion can be drawn.

Case 7: Some radios are cameras. Some cameras are statues.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some cameras are radios' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'Some statues are cameras', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Since both premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows.

Case 8: All cakes are candies. No candy is pastry.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some candies are cakes' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'No pastry is candy', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Since both premises are universal, the conclusion must be universal. Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. So, it follows that 'No cake is pastry'. The converse of this conclusion i.e. 'No pastry is cake' also holds.

Case 9: No coin is ring. All rings are bangles.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'No ring is coin' and the converse of the second premise i.e.'Some bangles are rings', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

First premise, being an E-type proposition, distributes both the subject and the predicate.

Second premise, being an A-type proposition, distributes the subject. Thus, the middle term 'ring' is distributed twice in the premises. So, the conclusion cannot be universal. Also, since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. Thus, the conclusion must be particular negative i.e. O-type. So, it follows that 'some bangles are not coins'.

Case 10: Some lamps are candles. No candle is bulb.

Immediate Deductive Inferences:

The converse of the first premise i.e. 'Some candles are lamps' and the converse of the second premise i.e. 'No bulb is candle', both hold.

Mediate Deductive Inferences:

Since one premise is particular and the other negative, the conclusion must be particular negative i.e. O-type, So, it follows that 'Some lamps are not bulbs'.

Important Points to Remember:

While deriving logical conclusions, always remember that the following conclusions hold:

1. The converse of each of the given premises;

2. The conclusion that directly follows from the given premises in accordance with the rules of syllogism;

3. The converse of the derived conclusions.

Tackle LR differently

LR is quite different in nature compared to other sections. Hence one needs to highlight some general strategies specifically applicable to LR.

Accuracy is far more important in LR. There is no bigger mistake than getting the complete set wrong. Avoid making guesses or reading in a hurry as it would lead to decreased accuracy. As far as possible do not attempt LR in the beginning. If you get the set wrong or if it is tough and takes more time, that would affect your performance subsequently.

Use the option substitution method judiciously. LR questions are typically not meant to be solved using substitution of options. The most effective way is to understand the logic behind the question and solve it. There are exceptions to this rule though and you should use them wisely.

Read and understand the common data and questions thoroughly. LR questions appear lengthy as compared to DI sets as they typically offer more information in text. While reading them, one might feel a lot of time is wasted. Yet, it helps to understand every condition thoroughly before attempting the questions. You may need to revisit the conditions while solving questions. Consider it time utilized not wasted.

To illustrate these points, let's look at some LR caselet from previous CAT papers.

I.

Read each definition and all four choices carefully, and find the answer that provides the best example of the given definition.

1) Applying for Seasonal Employment occurs when a person requests to be considered for a job that is dependent on a particular season or time of year. Which situation below is the best example of Applying for Seasonal Employment?

The ski instructors at Top of the Peak Ski School work from December through March.

Matthew prefers jobs that allow him to work outdoors.

Lucinda makes an appointment with the beach resort restaurant manager to interview for the summer waitressing position that was advertised in the newspaper.

Doug's ice cream shop stays open until 11 p.m. during the summer months.

Explanation:

Although the ski instructors at Top of the Peak Ski School do work seasonally, choice a does not describe anyone applying for seasonal employment. In choice b, the statement that Matthew likes to work outdoors tells us nothing about seasonal employment or someone applying for it. And although choice d describes a business with seasonal hours, it does not describe a person applying for seasonal work. Choice c, on the other hand, very specifically depicts a person, Lucinda, who is applying for a job as a summer waitress at a beach resort, which is dependent upon a particular season of the year.

2) Violating an Apartment Lease occurs when a tenant does something prohibited by the legally binding document that he or she has signed with a landlord. Which situation below is the best example of violating an Apartment Lease?

A.  Tim has decided to move to another city, so he calls his landlord to tell him that he is not interested in renewing his lease when it expires next month.

B.  Valerie recently lost her job and, for the last three months, has neglected to pay her landlord the monthly rent they agreed upon in writing when she moved into her apartment eight months ago.

C.  Mark writes a letter to his landlord that lists numerous complaints about the apartment he has agreed to rent for two years.

D.  Leslie thinks that her landlord is neglecting the building in which she rents an apartment. She calls her attorney to ask for advice.

Explanation:

Valerie signed a legally binding document that requires her to pay a monthly rent for her apartment and she has failed to do this for the last three months. Therefore, she has violated her apartment lease.

II.

Each problem consists of three statements. Based on the first two statements, the third statement may be true, false, or uncertain.

1) Tanya is older than Eric.

Cliff is older than Tanya.

Eric is older than Cliff.

If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

A. true

B. false

C. uncertain

Explanation:

Because the first two statements are true, Eric is the youngest of the three, so the third statement must be false.

2) Apartments in the Riverdale Manor cost less than apartments in The Gaslight Commons.

Apartments in the Livingston Gate cost more than apartments in the The Gaslight Commons.

Of the three apartment buildings, the Livingston Gate costs the most.

If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

A. true

B. false

C. uncertain

Explanation:

Since the Gaslight Commons costs more than the Riverdale Manor and the Livingston Gate costs more than the Gaslight Commons, it is true that the Livingston Gate costs the most.

III.

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

(A) If only assumption I is implicit

(B) If only assumption II is implicit

(C) If either I or II is implicit

(D) If neither I nor II is implicit

(E) If both I and II are implicit.

1)

Statement:
"You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation." - A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:

The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.

Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I nor II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Explanation:

The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual's worth shall be reviewed (during probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.

2)

Statement:
"In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees." - In-charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions:

Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.

Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

A. Only assumption I is implicit

B. Only assumption II is implicit

C. Either I or II is implicit

D. Neither I nor II is implicit

E. Both I and II are implicit

Explanation:

Assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.

IV.

Each of the following questions contains a small paragraph followed by a question on it. Read each paragraph carefully and answer the question given below it.

1)

Due to enormous profits involved in smuggling, hundreds of persons have been attracted towards this anti-national activity. Some of them became millionaires overnight. India has a vast coastline both on the Eastern and Western Coast. It has been a heaven for smugglers who have been carrying on their activities with great impunity. There is no doubt, that from time to time certain seizures were made by the enforcement authorities, during raids and ambush but even allowing these losses the smugglers made huge profits.

The passage best supports the statement that

A. smuggling hampers the economic development of a nation.

B. smuggling ought to be curbed.

C. authorities are taking strict measures to curb smuggling.

D. smuggling is fast increasing in our country owing to the quick profit it entails.

2)

One of the important humanitarian by-products of technology is the greater dignity and value that it imparts to human labour. In a highly industrialized society, there is no essential difference between Brahmin and Dalit, Muslim and Hindu; they are equally useful and hence equally valuable for in the industrial society individual productivity fixes the size of the pay cheque and this fixes social status.

The passage best supports the statement that:

A. technology decides individual's social status.

B. castes and religions are man-made.

C. human labour has dignity and value.

D. all individuals, irrespective of caste and creed, are born equal.

E. industrial society is a great leveller of men.

V.

In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

(A) If only conclusion I follows

(B) If only conclusion II follows

(C) If either I or II follows

(D) If neither I nor II follows and

(E) If both I and II follow.

1)

Statements: No women teacher can play. Some women teachers are athletes.

Conclusions:

I. Male athletes can play.

II. Some athletes can play.

A. Only conclusion I follows

B. Only conclusion II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. So, neither conclusion follows.

2)

Statements: All mangoes are golden in colour. No golden-coloured things are cheap.

Conclusions:

I.    All mangoes are cheap.

II.  Golden-coloured mangoes are not cheap.

A. Only conclusion I follows

B. Only conclusion II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

Clearly, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No mango is cheap'. Since all mangoes are golden in colour, we may substitute 'mangoes' with 'golden-coloured mangoes'. Thus, II follows.

VI.

In these series, you will be looking at both the letter pattern and the number pattern. Fill the blank in the middle of the series or end of the series.

1) SCD, TEF, UGH, ____, WKL

A. CMN B. UJI

C. VIJ D. IJT

Explanation:

There are two alphabetical series here. The first series is with the first letters only: STUVW. The second series involves the remaining letters: CD, EF, GH, IJ, KL.

2) ELFA, GLHA, ILJA, _____, MLNA

A. OLPA B. KLMA

C. LLMA D. KLLA

Explanation:

The second and forth letters in the series, L and A, are static. The first and third letters consist of an alphabetical order beginning with the letter E.

VII.

A good way to figure out the relationship in a given question is to make up a sentence that describes the relationship between the first two words. Then, try to use the same sentence to find out which of the answer choices completes the same relationship with the third word.

1) Odometer is to mileage as compass is to

A. speed B. hiking

C. needle D. direction

Explanation:

An odometer is an instrument used to measure mileage. A compass is an instrument used to determine direction. Choices a, b, and c are incorrect because none is an instrument.

2) Cup is to coffee as bowl is to

A. dish B. soup

C. spoon D. food

Explanation:

Coffee goes into a cup and soup goes into a bowl. Choices a and c are incorrect because they are other utensils. The answer is not choice d because the word food is too general.

VIII.

Each question presents a situation and asks you to make a judgment regarding that particular circumstance. Choose an answer based on given information.

1)

Eileen is planning a special birthday dinner for her husband's 35th birthday. She wants the evening to be memorable, but her husband is a simple man who would rather be in jeans at a baseball game than in a suit at a fancy restaurant. Which restaurant below should Eileen choose?

A.  Alfredo's offers fine Italian cuisine and an elegant Tuscan decor. Patrons will feel as though they've spent the evening in a luxurious Italian villa.

B.  Pancho's Mexican Buffet is an all-you-can-eat family style smorgasbord with the best tacos in town.

C.  The Parisian Bistro is a four-star French restaurant where guests are treated like royalty. Chef Dilbert Olay is famous for his beef bourguignon.

D.  Marty's serves delicious, hearty meals in a charming setting reminiscent of a baseball clubhouse in honor of the owner, Marty Lester, a former major league baseball all-star.

Explanation:

Since Eileen's husband does not enjoy fancy restaurants, choices a and c can be ruled out. Choice b, although casual, doesn't sound as though it would be the kind of special and memorable evening that Eileen is looking for. Choice d, which is owned by a former baseball star and is described as "charming" and "reminiscent of a baseball clubhouse", sounds perfect for Eileen's husband, who is described as a baseball fan and a man with simple tastes.

2)

Mrs. Carson took a taxi to meet her three friends for lunch. They were waiting for her outside the restaurant when she pulled up in the car. She was so excited to see her friends that she left her tote bag in the taxi. As the taxi pulled away, she and her friends took notice of the license plate number so they would be able to identify the car when they called the taxi company.

#1: The four women seem to agree that the plate starts out with the letter J.

#2: Three of them agree that the plate ends with 12L.

#3: Three of them think that the second letter is X, and a different three think that the third letter is K.

The four license plate numbers below represent what each of the four women thinks she saw. Which one is most likely the license plate number of the taxi?

A. JXK 12L

B. JYK 12L

C. JXK 12I

D. JXX 12L

Explanation:

The four women seem to agree that the plate starts out with the letter J. Three of them agree that the plate ends with 12L. Three of them think that the second letter is X, and a different three think that the third letter is K. The plate description that has all of these common elements is "Option A".

IX.

The government of an island nation is in the process of deciding how to spend its limited income. It has \$7 million left in its budget and eight programs to choose among. There is no provision in the constitution to have a surplus, and each program has requested the minimum amount they need; in other words, no program may be partially funded. The programs and their funding requests are:

* Hurricane preparedness: \$2.5 million

* Harbor improvements: \$1 million

* School music program: \$0.5 millionp>

* Senate office building remodeling: \$1.5 million

* Agricultural subsidy program: \$2 million

* Small business loan program: \$3 million

* International airport: \$4 million

1) Senators from urban areas are very concerned about assuring that there will be funding for a new international airport. Senators from rural areas refuse to fund anything until money for agricultural subsidies is appropriated. If the legislature funds these two programs, on which of the following could they spend the rest of the money?

A. the school music program and national radio

B. hurricane preparedness

C. harbor improvements and the school music program

E. national radio and senate office building remodeling

Explanation:

The total cost of the school music program and national radio is \$1 million, the amount left after the international airport and agricultural subsidies are funded.

International airport + Agricultural subsidy program

\$4 million + \$2 million = \$6 million

school music program and national radio is \$1 million.

Hence, Total \$7 million.

2) If the legislature decides to fund the agricultural subsidy program, national radio, and the small business loan program, what two other programs could they fund?

A. harbor improvements and international airport

B. harbor improvements and school music program

C. hurricane preparedness and school music program

D. hurricane preparedness and international airport

E. harbor improvements and hurricane preparedness

Explanation:

The only two programs that total 1.5 million dollars are the harbor improvements and school music program.

3) If the legislature decides to fund the agricultural subsidy program, national radio, and the small business loan program, the only other single program that can be funded is

A. hurricane preparedness

B. harbor improvements

C. school music program

D. senate office building remodeling

E. international airport

Explanation:

The total of the three programs (2 million + 0.5 million + 3 million) is 5.5 million. That leaves 1.5 million (7 million - 5.5 million), and the only single program needing that amount is the senate office building remodeling.

X.

In each question below is given a statement followed by two courses of action numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true and on the basis of the information given in the statement, decide which of the suggested courses of action logically follow(s) for pursuing.

(A) If only I follows

(B) If only II follows

(C) If either I or II follows

(D) If neither I nor II follows

(E) If both I and II follow.

1)

Statement: A large number of people in ward X of the city are diagnosed to be suffering from a fatal malaria type.

Courses of Action:

I. The city municipal authority should take immediate steps to carry out extensive fumigation in ward X.

II. The people in the area should be advised to take steps to avoid mosquito bites.

A. Only I follows

B. Only II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

Clearly, prevention from mosquitoes and elimination of mosquitoes are two ways to prevent malaria. So, both the courses follow.

2)

Statement: Since its launching in 1881, Vayudoot has so far accumulated losses amounting to Rs 153 crore.

Courses of Action:

I. Vayudoot should be directed to reduce wasteful expenditure and to increase passenger fare.

II. An amount of about Rs 300 crore should be provided to Vayudoot to make the airliner economically viable.

A. Only I follows

B. Only II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

Clearly, for better economic gain, losses should be reduced and income increased. So, only course I follows.

XI.

In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer as

(A) If statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect;

(B) If statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect;

(C) If both the statements I and II are independent causes;

(D) If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes; and

(E) If both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

1)

Statements:

I.    The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have remained unchanged for the past few months.

II.  The crude oil prices in the international market have gone up substantially in the last few months.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes

D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:

The prices of petrol and diesel being stagnant in the domestic market and the increase in the same in the international market must be backed by independent causes.

2)

Statements:

I.    All the schools in the area had to be kept closed for most part of the week.

II.  Many parents have withdrawn their children from the local schools.

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both the statements I and II are independent causes

D. Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

E. Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Explanation:

Closing the schools for a week and the parents withdrawing their wards from the local schools are independent issues, which must have been triggered by different individual causes.

XII.

Three of the words will be in the same classification, the remaining one will not be. Your answer will be the one word that does NOT belong in the same classification as the others.

1) Which word does NOT belong with the others?

A. parsley B. basil

C. dill D. mayonnaise

Explanation:

Parsley, basil, and dill are types of herbs. Mayonnaise is not an herb.

2) Which word does NOT belong with the others?

A. tire B. steering wheel

C. engine D. car

Explanation:

Tire, steering wheel, and engine are all parts of a car.

XIII.

First, you will be given a list of three "nonsense" words and their English word meanings. The question(s) that follow will ask you to reverse the process and translate an English word into the artificial language.

1) Here are some words translated from an artificial language.

gorblflur means fan belt

pixngorbl means ceiling fan

arthtusl means tile roof

Which word could mean "ceiling tile"?

A. gorbltusl B. flurgorbl

C. arthflur D. pixnarth

Explanation:

Gorbl
means fan; flur means belt; pixn means ceiling; arth means tile; and tusl means roof. Therefore, pixnarth is the correct choice.

2) Here are some words translated from an artificial language.

agnoscrenia means poisonous spider

delanocrenia means poisonous snake

agnosdeery means brown spider

Which word could mean "black widow spider"?

A. deeryclostagnos B. agnosdelano

C. agnosvitriblunin D. trymuttiagnos

Explanation:

In this language, the noun appears first and the adjectives follow. Since agnos means spider and should appear first, choices a and d can be ruled out. Choice b can be ruled out because delano means snake.

XVI.

Find the statement that must be true according to the given information.

1)

Vincent has a paper route. Each morning, he delivers 37 newspapers to customers in his neighborhood. It takes Vincent 50 minutes to deliver all the papers. If Vincent is sick or has other plans, his friend Thomas, who lives on the same street, will sometimes deliver the papers for him.

A. Vincent and Thomas live in the same neighborhood.

B. It takes Thomas more than 50 minutes to deliver the papers.

C. It is dark outside when Vincent begins his deliveries.

D. Thomas would like to have his own paper route.

Explanation:

The fact that Vincent and Thomas live on the same street indicates that they live in the same neighborhood.
There is no support for any of the other choices.

2)

When they heard news of the hurricane, Maya and Julian decided to change their vacation plans. Instead of traveling to the island beach resort, they booked a room at a fancy new spa in the mountains. Their plans were a bit more expensive, but they'd heard wonderful things about the spa and they were relieved to find availability on such short notice.

A. Maya and Julian take beach vacations every year.

B. The spa is overpriced.

C. It is usually necessary to book at least six months in advance at the spa.

D. Maya and Julian decided to change their vacation plans because of the hurricane.

Explanation:

The first sentence makes this statement true. There is no support for choice a. The passage tells us that the spa vacation is more expensive than the island beach resort vacation, but that doesn't necessarily mean that the spa is overpriced; therefore, choice b cannot be supported. And even though the paragraph says that the couple was relieved to find a room on short notice, there is no information to support choice c, which says that it is usually necessary to book at the spa at least six months in advance.

XVII.

Read the paragraph carefully and determine the main point the author is trying to make. What conclusion can be drawn from the argument? Each paragraph is followed by five statements. One statement supports the author's argument better than the others do.

1)

One New York publisher has estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States want an anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare. And what accounts for this renewed interest in Shakespeare? As scholars point out, his psychological insights into both male and female characters are amazing even today.

This paragraph best supports the statement that

A. Shakespeare's characters are more interesting than fictional characters today.

B. people even today are interested in Shakespeare's work because of the characters.

C. academic scholars are putting together an anthology of Shakespeare's work.

D. New Yorkers have a renewed interested in the work of Shakespeare.

E. Shakespeare was a psychiatrist as well as a playwright.

Explanation:

The last sentence in the paragraph clearly gives support for the idea that the interest in Shakespeare is due to the development of his characters. Choice a is incorrect because the writer never makes this type of comparison. Choice c is wrong because even though scholars are mentioned in the paragraph, there is no indication that the scholars are compiling the anthology. Choice d is wrong because there is no support to show that most New Yorkers are interested in this work. There is no support for choice e either.

2)

Generation Xers are those people born roughly between 1965 and 1981. As employees, Generation Xers tend to be more challenged when they can carry out tasks independently. This makes Generation Xers the most entrepreneurial generation in history.

This paragraph best supports the statement that Generation Xers

A. work harder than people from other generations

B. have a tendency to be self-directed workers

C. have an interest in making history

D. tend to work in jobs that require risk-taking behavior.

E. like to challenge their bosses work attitudes.

Explanation:

The support for choice b is given in the second sentence of the paragraph. Generation Xers like to work independently, which means they are self-directed. No support is given for either choice a or choice c. Choice d is not related to the paragraph. Although the paragraph mentions that Generation Xers like to be challenged, it does not say they like to challenge their bosses attitudes; therefore, choice e can be ruled out.

XVIII.

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

(A) If only conclusion I follows

(B) If only conclusion II follows

(C) If either I or II follows

(D) If neither I nor II follows and

(E) If both I and II follow.

1)

Statements: The old order changed yielding place to new.

Conclusions:

Change is the law of nature.

Discard old ideas because they are old.

A. Only conclusion I follows

B. Only conclusion II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

Clearly, I directly follows from the given statement. Also, it is mentioned that old ideas are replaced by new ones, as thinking changes with the progressing time. So, II does not follow.

2)

Statements: Population increase coupled with depleting resources is going to be the scenario of many developing countries in days to come.

Conclusions:

The population of developing countries will not continue to increase in future.

It will be very difficult for the governments of developing countries to provide its people decent quality of life.

A. Only conclusion I follows

B. Only conclusion II follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

E. Both I and II follow

Explanation:

The fact given in I is quite contrary to the given statement. So, I does not follow. II mentions the direct implications of the state discussed in the statement. Thus, II follows.

XIX.

Each question given below consists of a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a 'strong' argument and which is a 'weak' argument.

(A) If only argument I is strong

(B) If only argument II is strong

(C) If either I or II is strong

(D) If neither I nor II is strong and

(E) If both I and II are strong.

1)

Statement: Should all the drugs patented and manufactured in Western countries be first tried out on sample basis before giving license for sale to general public in India?

Arguments:

Yes. Many such drugs require different doses and duration for Indian population and hence it is necessary.

No. This is just not feasible and hence cannot be implemented.

A. Only argument I is strong

B. Only argument II is strong

C. Either I or II is strong

D. Neither I nor II is strong

E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation:

Clearly, health of the citizens is an issue of major concern for the Government. So, a product like drugs, must be first studied and tested in the Indian context before giving license for its sale. So, only argument I holds strong.

2)

Statement: Should there be students union in college/university?

Arguments:

No. This will create a political atmosphere in the campus.

Yes, it is very necessary Students are future political leaders.

A. Only argument I is strong

B. Only argument II is strong

C. Either I or II is strong

D. Neither I nor II is strong

E. Both I and II are strong

Explanation:

The students' union formation shall be a step towards giving to students the basic education in the field of politics. However, it shall create the same political atmosphere in the campus. Thus, both the arguments hold strong.

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