Grammar is the fundamental component of language learning. It is the formal and standardized framework, accepted across the world. It comprises the rules and principles which determine the structure of sentences. Though, it is possible to communicate even without knowing the rudiments of grammar, knowledge of grammar is absolutely essential for mastering the language. To be able to speak and write effectively, it is essential to be aware of the structure of words and how words come together to form meaningful sentences which makes effective communication possible. The rules that govern this fall under the domain of grammar.
As grammar is a vast domain, this module on grammar is restricted to those areas that can help the MBA aspirants improve their language skills and avoid committing errors on this account.The MBA aspirants are expected to possess a reasonable level of spoken and written English skills. English is an important lingua franca of the world and that is why being proficient in it is unavoidable for MBA aspirants. Keeping this in mind, the module is divided into the following components, to help them improve their speaking and writing skills:
While preparing this module, the needs of the aspirants have been kept in mind and emphasis has been laid on the functional aspect of language, how it is used.
It is one of the basic rules of English language that the Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person. The following points need to be kept in mind while framing a sentence.
a. Two or more singular nouns or pronouns joined by 'and' require a plural verb.
For instance, He and I were playing .
Are your father and mother home?
But, if the nouns suggest one idea, or refer to the same person or thing, the verb is singular.
For instance, Time and tide waits for no man.
Honour and glory is his reward.
b. Two or more singular subjects connected by 'or' or 'nor' require a singular verb.
For instance, Either the thief or the police has reached the house first.
Neither praise nor blame seems to affect him.
c. 'Either', 'neither', 'each', 'everyone' must be followed by a singular verb.
For instance, He asked me whether either of the applicants was suitable.
Neither of the two men was very strong.
Each of these varieties is found in England.
Everyone of you is a traitor.
d. When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole, the verb is generally singular.
For instance, Fifteen minutes is allowed to each speaker.
Ten kilometres is a long walk.
e. Words joined to a singular subject by 'with', 'as well as', etc take a singular verb.
For instance, The ship, with its crew, was lost.
Sanskrit, as well as Persian, was taught there.
Q1. Fill in the blanks with a Verb in agreement with its Subject.
i. The cost of all these articles _____ risen.
ii. No news _____ good news.
iii. A good man and useful citizen _____ passed away.
iv. Each of the suspected men _____ arrested.
v. The cow as well as the horse _____ grass.
vi. Neither you nor he _____ to blame.
vii. The news _____ true.
viii. All possible means _____ been tried.
ix. The United States _____ a big navy.
x. Neither praise nor blame _____ to affect him.
Q2.Correct the errors in the subject-verb agreement in the following sentences:
1.The Principal with his staff and students were present.
2.It is I who are responsible.
3.Either of these roads lead to the market.
4.Neither he nor his friends has broken the window.
5.The President and the secretary was arrested.
6.Many a man have died for the nation.
7.The quality of these apples are good.
8.Neither he nor you is wrong.
9.Each of them were rewarded.
10.The horse and cart are at the door.
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else. A preposition used in the wrong place can turn the meaning of the sentence on its head. For instance, 'Please don't shout at me: calm down and speak normally' suggests anger and 'She shouted to me from the upstairs window' suggests that someone is calling someone to be heard. Changing prepositions will change the meaning of the sentence. That's how crucial the role of preposition is. A person with a good command over the English language will use prepositions correctly.
Types of Prepositions
Preposition of Place Preposition of Time Preposition of Direction
a. Preposition of Place
These prepositions are used to show the position or location of one thing with another. Some of the common prepositions of place are on, at, in, inside, over, against, below. The image below shows the idea conveyed by these prepositions.
c. Preposition of Direction
These prepositions reveal the movement or direction of something. Some of the common prepositions of direction are to, from, up, down, into, over, under, through. The image below shows the idea conveyed by these prepositions.
Q1. Fill in the blanks with a suitable preposition.
a. The child responded to his mother's demands _____ throwing a tantrum.
b. I will wait _____ 6.30, but then I'm going home.
c. My best friend, John, is named _____ his grandfather.
d. My parents have been married _____ forty years.
e. It's been snowing _____ Christmas morning.
f. I get paid _____ the end of the month.
g. I'll be with you _____ a moment.
h. I've got a meeting _____ Monday morning.
i. He enjoyed the peace as he walked _____ the forest.
j. A grey mist hung _____ the fields.
An article is a kind of determiner which is always used with and gives some information about a noun. They specify the definiteness of the noun. There are three articles used in English language- 'a', 'an', 'the'. Every noun must be accompanied by the article, if any, corresponding to its definiteness, and the lack of an article itself specifies a certain definiteness. Given the frequency with which they appear, these words are certainly indispensable to the language. Therefore, this module will discuss articles for the benefit of the MBA aspirants to help them improve their language skills and become aware of one of the components of English grammar.
Articles are divided into two categories:
a. Indefinite Article
Indefinite articles are used:
-with countable nouns when we don't know exactly which one we are referring to. For instance, 'The teacher is talking about a ten year old boy'.
-while referring to a particular member of a group. For instance, 'John is a Catholic'.
-to say what someone is or what job they do. For instance, 'He is a teacher.'
-with a singular noun to refer to all things of that kind. For instance, 'A dog is man's best friend.'
There are two types of indefinite articles:
-'a' is used with words starting with consonant sounds, for example, a doctor, a boy etc.
-'an' is used with words starting with vowel sounds, for example, an engineer, an orange, an honest man etc.
b. Definite Article
There is only one definite article, 'the'. Definite article is used before a noun when we believe the listener knows exactly what we referring to
-because there is only one. For instance, 'The President of India is going to visit the US soon.'
-because we have already mentioned it. For instance, 'A terrorist entered the mall. The terrorist was accompanied by three other men.'
We also use definite article with:
-countries whose names include words like kingdom, states or republic-the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Nepal.
-mountain ranges, group of islands, rivers, seas, oceans and canals- the Himalayas, the Atlantic, the Arabian Sea.
-newspapers-The Times of India
-organisations-the United Nations
-with superlatives-the brightest student
Q1. Complete the following sentences by filling in 'a' or 'an' or 'the' as may be suitable:
i. He is not _____ honourable man.
ii. _____ sun shines brightly.
iii. Rustum is _____ young Parsee.
iv.You are _____ fool to say that.
v. French is _____ easy language.
vi. Who is _____ girl sitting there?
vii. Man, thou art _____ wonderful animal.
viii. Which is _____ longest river in India?
ix. The world is _____ happy place.
x. Yesterday _____ European called at my office.
|i. an||vi. the|
|ii. The||vii. a|
|iii. a||viii. the|
|iv. a||ix. a|
|v. an||x. a|
Tenses play a crucial role in the English language. It denotes the time an action takes place, whether some time in the past, in the present or will take some time in the future.
This module is designed for helping the MBA aspirants grasp this crucial topic, to enable them to speak and write English correctly. From a general view of tenses, this module will go on to discuss each tense in detail with examples. The table below gives a glimpse of the way tenses are used using the verb 'play'
|Simple||played (verb+ed)||plays (verb+s)||will/shall play (will/shall+verb)|
|Perfect||had played (had+past participle)||has/have played (has/have+past participle)||will/shall have played(will/shall+past participle)|
|Continuous||was/were playing(was/were+verb+ing)||is/am/are playing(is/am/are+verb+ing)||will/shall be playing(will/shall be+verb+ing)|
|Perfect Continuous||had been playing (had been+verb+ing)||has/have been playing(has/have been+verb+ing)||will/shall have been playing(will/shall have been+verb+ing)|
i.Simple Past Tense-indicates an action took place before the present moment and that has no real connection with the present time.
For example, "He danced in the function." (The action took place in the past, is finished and is completely unrelated to the present)
"He flew to London yesterday."
a.the verb 'flew' is an irregular verb which does not take 'ed' in the past tense like regular verbs.
b. the form of Simple Past Tense is - verb + ed
ii. Past Perfect Tense- indicates an action in the past that had been completed before another time or event in the past.
For example, "He had exercised before it started to rain."
"He had slept before I came back from the market."
a. the form of Past Perfect Tense is- had + verb (past participle form or the 3rd form of the verb)
iii.Past Continuous Tense-indicates an action going on at some time in the past or an action in the past that is longer in duration than another action in the past.
For example, "It was getting darker."
"The light went out while theywere reading."
a. the form of Past Continuous Tense is- was/were + verb + ing
iv. Past Perfect Continuous Tense-indicates an action in the past that took place before another time or event in the past and continued during the second event/time point in the past.
For example, "At that time, he had been writing a novel for two months."
"He had been exercising when I called."
a. the form of Past Perfect Continuous Tense is- had + been + verb + ing
i. Simple Present Tense- indicates an action that is generally true or habitual. That is, it took place in the past , continue to take place in the present, and will take place in the future. This tense is used to denote
-a habitual action- for instance, "He walk to school."
-general truths- for instance, "The sun rises in the east", "Honesty is the best policy."
-a future event that is part of a fixed timetable- for instance, "The match starts at 9 o' clock."
a. the form of Simple Present Tense is- verb (infinitive without 'to' and agreeable with the subject)
ii. Present Perfect Tense-indicates an action that has been completed sometime before the present moment, with a result that affects the present situation.
For example, "He has finished the work."
"He has slept."
a. the form of Present Perfect Tense is- has/have + verb (past participle form or 3rd form of the verb)
iii. Present Continuous Tense-indicates an action that is taking place at the moment of speaking.
For example, "She is walking."
"I am studying."
a. the form of Present Continuous Tense is- is/am/are + verb + ing
iv. Present Perfect Continuous Tense¬-indicates an action that started in the past and is continuing at the present time.
For example, "He has been sleeping for an hour."
a. the form of Present Perfect Continuous Tense is- has/have + been + verb + ing
i. Simple Future Tense-indicates an action that will take place after the present time and that has no real connection with the present time.
For example, "She will visit her ailing grandmother soon."
"He will walk home."
a. the form of Simple Future Tense is- will/shall + verb
ii. Future Perfect Tense-indicates an action in the future that will have been completed before another time or event in the future.
For example, "By the time we arrive, he will have studied."
a. the form of Future Perfect Tense is- will/shall have + verb(past participle form or 3rd form of the verb)
iii. Future Continuous Tense-indicates an action in the future that is longer in duration than another action in the future.
For example, "He will be walking when it starts to rain."
a. the form of Future Continuous Tense is-will/shall be + verb + ing
iv. Future Perfect Continuous Tense-indicates an action in the future that will have been continuing until another time or event in the future.
For example, "He will have been exercising an hour at 2:00."
a. the form of Future Perfect Continuous Tense is- will/shall have been + verb + ing
Q1. Choose the correct verb from those in brackets:
a. The earth _____ round the sun. (move, moves, moved)
b. My friends _____ the film yesterday. (see, saw, have seen)
c. It started to rain while we _____ tennis. (are playing, had played, were playing)
d. I _____ English for five years. (have been studying, study, am studying)
e. The train _____ before we reach the station. (arrives, will have arrived, had arrived)
f. Don't disturb me. I _____ my work. (do, did, am doing)
g. Fortune _____ the brave. (is favouring, will favour, favours)
h. I _____ the letter before you arrived. (had written, wrote, will write)
i. He _____ us next week. (will have met, will have been meeting, will be meeting)
j. Perhaps we _____ Delhi next month. (visit, will visit, visited)
Q2. Complete the dialogue.
Rashid: Rahul! Your friend Manas has sent you a postcard. It’s from Kerala. It ____ (look) nice.
Rahul: I bet it does!
Rashid: He ____ (write) that it’s very hot there. There ___ (be) a lot of tourists. The hotels ____ (be) full. He ____ (say) the restaurants ____ (be) always full!
Rahul: Yes. I’m sure it is. The papers____ (say) that the temperature there is 30C.
Rashid: Then he ___ (write) that he has learnt a bit of Malayalam, and that he ____ (get on) well with the people there, especially the women!
Rashid: Look, didn’t the newspaper ____ (say) that there’s another strike in Kerala.
Rahul: Yes, it did Manas won’t mind having to stay in Kerala longer!
Q3. Correct the following sentences:
i. I lived in Calcutta since 1930.
ii. She died before her husband came.
iii. I have written a letter to her last Monday.
iv. I am reading Kalidasa for the last six days.
v. The new hotel has been opened last Saturday.
vi. He had gone to Madras last week.
vii. The train leave the station before I reached there.
viii. I wish my men had been coming quickly and find us.
ix. At the moment the baby sleep in the cradle.
x. He goes out for ten minutes.
c. were playing
d. have been studying
e. will have arrived
f. am doing
h. had written
i. will be meeting
j. will visit
b. has written
i. gets on
i. I have been living in Calcutta since 1930.
ii. She had died before her husband came.
iii.I wrote a letter to her last Monday.
iv. I have been reading Kalidasa for the last six days.
v. The new hotel opened last Saturday.
vi. He went to Madras last week.
vii. The train had left the station before I reached there.
viii. I wish my men came quickly and found us.
ix. At the moment the baby is sleeping in the cradle.
x. He has gone out for ten minutes.
The art of communication, whether oral or written, lies in how words are brought together to form sentences. It is here that conjunctions play an important role. They are words that connect other words, phrases or clauses within a sentence. For example, 'and', 'or;, 'besides', 'also', 'because', but', 'although', 'despite', 'yet', 'however' and so on.
There are two kinds of conjunctions:
a. Co-ordinating Conjunctions-connect words, phrases, or clauses of the same rank and usually of the same kind. The chief Co-ordinating Conjunctions are: and, but, for, or, nor, also, either...or, neither...nor.
For example, "Anuj and Kalpana are friends."
"We waited an hour, but no one came."
"Neither a borrower, nor a lender be."
"Either he is mad, or he feigns madness."
"He is slow, but he is sure."
Understanding the way Co-ordinating Conjunctions work can make it easy for the aspirant to use. There are four types of Co-ordinating Conjunctions:
• Cumulative- these merely add one statement to another. For example, "God made the country and man made the town."
• Adversative- these express opposition or contrast between two statements. For example, "I was annoyed, still I kept quiet."
• Disjunctive or Alternative- these express a choice between two alternatives. For example, "Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him."
• Illative- these express an inference. For example, "All precautions must have been neglected, for the disease spread rapidly."
b. Subordinating Conjunctions-connect a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning. The common Subordinating Conjunctions are: that, when, where, while, after, before, as soon as, if, because and as.
For example, "After the shower was over, the sun shone out again."
"You will pass if you work hard."
"He ran away because he was afraid."
Subordinating Conjunctions can be classified according to their meaning as :
• Time- "I would die before I lied.
"Many things have happened since I saw you."
• Purpose-"We eat so that we may live."
"He held my hand lest I should fall."
• Reason-"Since you wish it, it shall be done."
"I helped him because he was a friend."
• Condition-"Grievances cannot be redressed unless they are known."
"I will go if you come along."
• Comparison-"He is stronger than Ajay."
"Distribute the mangoes equally between the two brothers."
Q1. Fill the blank with appropriate Conjunctions:
a. He fled, _____ he was afraid.
b. Wait _____ I return.
c. _____ you say so, I must believe it.
d. You will pass _____ you work hard.
e. _____ take it _____ leave it.
f. Make hay _____ the sun shines.
g. Is this my book _____ yours?
h. He is witty _____ vulgar.
i. I returned home _____ he had gone.
j. He stood _____ the painting.
Clauses are the building blocks of the English language. Any sentence hat you write which has a subject (the doer of the action) and a verb (an action word) is called a clause. Whereas a phrase is a group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, a clause makes complete sense.
For example, "a clear blue sky" (is a phrase) and "A clear blue sky welcomed me in Leh" (is a clause-The subject is 'A clear blue sky' and the verb is 'welcomed').
There are two kinds of Clauses:
a. Principal or Main Clause
A main clause is a clause that contains a subject and an object. They make sense on their own.
For example, "I like ice-cream" is a simple sentence made of a main clause.
"I like ice-cream and I like chocolate" is a compound sentence made up of two main clauses ('I like ice-cream' and 'I like chocolate'). The two main clauses are joined by the conjunction 'and.'
b. Subordinate Clause
A subordinate clause contains a subject and a verb but it depends on the main clause for making sense as it does not make complete sense on its own.
For example, "I will go to the market if you come with me" is a complex sentence. It has a main clause 'I will go to the market' and a subordinate clause 'if you come with me'. The main clause 'I will go to the market' makes complete sense on its own. But, the subordinate clause 'if you come with me' does not make complete sense on its own and depends on the main clause for its complete meaning.
Based on the function they perform in the sentence, clauses can be categorized as:
• Noun Clause- is a group of words which contains a Subject and Predicate of its own, and does the work of a noun. For example, "I like what I see" as a way of saying "I like cakes". The highlighted portion is a clause that is functioning as noun.
• Adjective Clause-usually comes after the noun it qualifies and is made up of several words which, like all clauses, will include a subject and a verb.It answers the adjective questions 'What kind? How many? or Which one?" For example, "The umbrella which has a broken handle is mine."The highlighted portion is a clause that is functioning as an adjective.
• Adverb Clause-is a group of words which contains a Subject and Predicate of its own, and does the work of an adverb. It answers the adverb questions How? When? Where? Or Why? For example, "You may sit wherever you like." The highlighted portion is a clause that is functioning as an adverb.
Q1. Identify the clauses and point it whether it is a Noun Clause, Adjective Clause, Adverb Clause.
a. The bankers need to know what they should do.
b. The books, which are lost, are not really necessary.
c. Whether you like it or not, you have to go to bed now.
d. Students who are intelligent get good grades.
e. No one knows he is.
f. When I was younger, I thought so.
g. He laughs best who laughs last.
h. I went to see what had happened.
i. He met a girl whose eyes were blue.
j. I shall remain where I am.
a. what they should do-Noun Clause
b. which are lost-Adjective Clause
c. Whether you like it or not-Adverb Clause
d. who are intelligent-Adjective Clause
e. who he is-Noun Clause
f. when I was younger-Adverb Clause
g. who laughs last-Adjective Clause
h. what had happened-Noun Clause
i. whose eyes were blue-Adjective Clause
j. where I am-Adverb Clause
You may possess good language skills and know how to express yourself in the language but without the knowledge of punctuation marks, your skills, especially written, is incomplete. A piece of writing which does include punctuation marks is difficult to read as compared to a piece of writing which carries proper punctuation marks at the right places. To make an impact on the examiner, it is important for you to take care of these little marks, to come across as a serious and professional writer. This module discusses the commonly used punctuation marks, their significance and their implementation.
i. COMMA (,)
The comma is used to indicate a short pause. It is used:
a. for words, phrases, and clauses in a series.
For example, "Gandhiji, the Father of the Nation, died on 30th January, 1948.
"Apples, Mangoes and Bananas are my favourites."
"Gandhiji, who was the Father of the Nation, died on 30th January, 1948.
b. when you address a person.
For example, "Yes, Sir."
c. to separate numbers, dates and address.
For example, I was born on 9th August, 1990 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
d. When two persons, things or other elements are contrasted, the two are separated by a comma.
For example, I meant Raj, not Robin.
e. Direct quotations are marked by comma.
For example, She said, "I'm sorry."
ii. SEMICOLON (;)
The semicolon represents a stronger pause than a comma. It is used to stress the close relationship between one sentence and another.
For example, Today we love what tomorrow we hate;today we seek what tomorrow we shun;today we desire what tomorrow we fear.
The colon is used to show that something is to follow.
For example, The principle parts of a verb in English are: the present tense, the past tense, and the past participle.
iv. DASH (-)
The dash is used to make an abrupt stop or change of thought.
For example, If my husband were alive-but why lament the past?
He has-you may not believe it-failed.
v. EXCLAMATION MARK (!)
The exclamation mark is used after interjections and after phrases and sentences expressing sudden emotion or wish.
For example, Alas! Oh dear!
vi. INVERTED COMMAS (")
Inverted Commas are used to enclose the exact words of a speaker, or a quotation.
For example, "I would rather die," he exclaimed, "than join the oppressors of my country."
vii. QUESTION MARK (?)
Question Mark is used, instead of the Full Stop, after a direct question.
For example, Have you finished writing?
viii. FULL STOP (.)
The full stop is used to mark the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence. It represents the greatest pause.
For example, Rohan, Vinay and Sabay are best friends.
Q1. Punctuate the following sentences.
a. i like playing with my friends sandy sunny sameer
b. we went through the smoky mountains, near shimla on our way to leh
c. myfavourite soap is pears and my favourite toothpaste is pepsodent
d. i’m a catholic and that’s why i go to st.joseph’s school
e. my friend priya speaks german and she is teaching me some words
f. he was honest sincere hard working
g. hindusmuslimssikhschristians live together in India
h. long ago in a town in Switzerland there lived a famous man called william
i. akbar the greatest of the mughal emperors ruled wisely
j. tanya said to ila rahul is a nice guy
a. I like playing with my friends-Sandy, Sunny and Sameer.
b. We went through the smoky mountains near Shimla, on our way to Leh.
c. My favourite soap is Pears and my favourite toothpaste is Pepsodent.
d. I'm a Catholic and that's why I go to St. Joseph's School.
e. My friend, Priya speaks German and she is teaching me some words.
f. He was honest, sincere and hard working.
g. Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians live together in India.
h. Long ago, in a town in Switzerland, there lived a famous man called William.
i. Akbar, the greatest of the Mughal emperors, ruled wisely.
j. Tanya said to Ila, "Rahul is a nice guy."
An idiom is an expression or a phrase whose meaning cannot be easily understood from the individual meanings of the words it contains. Idioms play an important part in the language as they make language richer and more colourful and convey their point subtly. The aspirants can use idioms to enrich their language skills, make an impact and say more in few words. Find a list of few idioms given below:
|Actions speak louder than words||People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than what they say|
|At the drop of a hat||Instantly|
|Have an ace up your sleeve||Have a secret advantage|
|Up in arms||Protesting angrily about something|
|Back to square one||Back to the starting point, with no progress made|
|A bed of roses||A situation or activity that is comfortable or easy|
|A bird's eye view||A general view from above|
|Can't judge a book by its cover||Cannot judge something primarily on appearance|
|Bury the hatchet||End a quarrel or conflict and become friendly|
|Count your blessings||Be grateful for what you have|
|Off the cuff||Without preparation|
|Get on like a house of fire||Have a good and friendly relationship|
|Let bygones be bygones||Forgive and forget past offences or causes of conflict|
|The cat has got someone's tongue||Someone is remaining silent|
|Let the cat out of the bag||Revel a secret, especially carelessly or by mistake|
|Under fire||Being severely criticized|
|Breathe fire||Be fiercely angry|
|The bottom line||The important conclusion|
|Live out of a suitcase||A great deal of travelling|
|For good measure||In addition to what has already been said, done|
|Send in your papers||Resign|
|Paddle your own canoe||Be independent and self sufficient|
|Roll up your sleeves||Prepare to fight or work|
|Make a rod for your own back||Do something likely to cause difficulties for yourself later|
Q1. Complete the table:
|Spill the beans||Don't spill the beans yet.|
|Keep an eye out for that||Maintain awareness of it|
|Beating around the bush||Avoiding the main topic|
|Adjusting quickly to changes and making fast decisions||He had to think on his feat to close the deal.|
|Tricks of the trade||Clever or expert way of doing something|
a. let out a secret
b. Keep an eye out on that job.
c. Stop beating around the bush and come to the point.
d. think on your feet
e. Doing the job over several years, I know all tricks of the trade.
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