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- Lavleen Kaur Kapoor
United Nations Organization is an international organization of almost 193 member countries of the world. UNO was founded in 24 October 24, 1945 in San Francisco, California, soon after the end of world war. It is a world body with a large number of sovereign states as its members. No doubt the tragedy, bloodshed, massacre, hunger and nuclear atrocities during wars, UNO gave an alarming alert to the nations to freeing the world from the possibility of wars in future. At end of the First World War, The League of Nations was formed. But it could not stand groupism and power politics. So UNO was formed to replace League of Nations and to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue.
The objectives of the United Nations Organization are:
(1) to maintain international peace and security,
(2) to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for equal rights and self-determination of peoples,
(3) to promote co-operation economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian fields among nations and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom of all.
(4) To act as a centre harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends.
UNO has seven principal organs that play different roles with separate motives. These main organs are:
• General Assembly: It is the main deliberative organ of the UN and is composed of representatives of all Member States. The work of the United Nations year-round derives largely from the mandates given by the General Assembly.
• Security Council: It has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security. A reform of the Security Council, including its membership is under consideration.
• Economic and Social Council: The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), established by the UN Charter, is the principal organ to coordinate the economic, social and related work of the United Nations and the specialized agencies and institutions.
• Trusteeship Council: Its aim is to provide international supervision for 11 Trust Territories placed under the administration of 7 Member States, and ensure that adequate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence.
• International Court of Justice: It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It settles legal disputes between states and gives advisory opinions to the UN and its specialized agencies.
• Secretariat: The Secretariat carries out the day-to-day work of the Organization.
• Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs: It is a legal publication containing analytical studies of the decisions of the principal organs of the United Nations.
The Security Council is the most important organ of the UNO. It has five permanent members and ten non- permanent members. The five permanent members on the UNSC with veto power are Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States. As part of a proposed expansion of the Security Council, Brazil, Germany, India and Japan, collectively the Group of 4 or G4 nations, are seeking permanent representation on this body.
Reform of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) encompasses five key issues: categories of membership, the question of the veto held by the five permanent members, regional representation, the size of an enlarged Council and its working methods, and the Security Council-General Assembly relationship. Member States, regional groups and other Member State interest groupings developed different positions and proposals on how to move forward on this contested issue. U.S and other permanent council members were not very supportive of expanding the Security Council. The reform of the Security Council requires the agreement of at least two-thirds of UN member states and that of all the permanent members of the UNSC, enjoying the veto right.
India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. It has contributed troops to UN peacekeeping efforts in the Korea, Egypt and Congo in earlier years and in Somalia, Angola and Rwanda in recent years, and more recently Haiti. India has been a member of the UN Security Council seven terms, most recently from 2011 to 2012. India is one of the countries that severed for the most numbers of years as an elected member.
Secretary (Economic Relations), Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, New Delhi Ranking official for economic diplomacy responsible for all multilateral economic issues including those relating to the United Nations, WTO and international financial institutions and for trade finance, investment and technology promotion.
India recently got elected as a non permanent member of the United Nations Security Council after it garnered 187 votes out of 190 in the then 192 member General Assembly according to this report.
United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon has quoted, “India has given its best to the United Nations and to the world -- its best economists, doctors and engineers, its most promising ideas. India has served with distinction as envoys and UN staff members. India is indispensable partner for peace and security. Indian peacekeepers are deployed across the world -- from Cyprus to Sudan, Kosovo to Cote d'Ivoire, Lebanon to the Golan Heights, Georgia to Timor-Leste".
At present Indian Union is respected as a country of honor and dignity in the international arena where it overcame all kinds’ of ethnic conflicts. Now India can rightly proclaim to be a member of UN to do its best for the people of the globe. As a founding member of the United Nations, India has traditionally played an active role in the United Nations General Assembly with a number of notable contributions. In 1953, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit became the first woman elected president of the UN General Assembly where she spoke against apartheid and in favour of world peace. Presently, Hardeep Singh Puri, Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, is the permanent representative of India to United Nations Organization.
Apart from India’s humanitarian help to its neighbor states Pakistan at the time of earth quake, Bangladesh at the time of cyclone and storm, Sri Lanka at the time of ethnic conflict, Marissa at the time of administrative collapse by the foreign intruders, India extended its hands to UN at the time of world conflicts in any regions of the world and never hesitated to send Indian Arm Force at any places for rightful purpose. Indian Army took up a different principle, a principle under which they had been brought up so long – a principle of administration under tolerance. Instead of killing the rioters, they contact the local warlords and militia commanders and set up an atmosphere of ‘ceasefire’ after an understanding with the local leaders, elders and other leaders.
India is regular contributor to United Nations Peacekeeping mission. India is giving its service in the function of bringing peace and order under UNO guided under Indian principle of administrative control of balancing between killing and forgiveness. India should have a rightful place as a member of UN. The powerful country of the globe should not oppose its membership on political ground which will be detrimental to human civilization and mankind.
55 years ago news hits the newspaper headlines that an offer for permanent membership, was made by United States and Soviet Union, and was decline by India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. He said that the seat should be given to China. This decision by Nehru is seen as a blunder and loss of an opportunity to attain a stronger diplomatic stature by India. If India were to accept this offer it would have required the United Nations charter to be amended to include India in place of Republic of China in the Security Council or to expand the Council.
Since then India is seeking permanent membership and there are number of claims to justify its demand. India has the world’s second largest population and is the world’s largest liberal democracy. It is also the world’s twelfth largest economy and has maintains the world’s third largest armed force. India is one of the main contributors to the UN regular budget.Indian contribution to United Nations Democracy Fund was USD $16 million for the 2009.
Although the United States initially opposed India's candidacy on grounds of nuclear proliferation, s India has acquired nuclear weapons and not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. But U.S president Barrack Obama in his recent visit to India has offered his support for Indian to become a permanent member of the Council. His exact words on November 8 were: “I look forward to a reformed UN Security Council that includes India as a permanent member.” This is read as a ‘full endorsement’ of India’s candidacy and a new salience in India-US relations.
Support for India’s candidature has been rapidly growing. Several countries and organizations such as United Arab Emirates, Kazakhstan, Chile, Bangladesh, Australia, Czech Republic, Tanzania, and the African Union openly support India's candidacy. On April 15, 2011 China officially expressed its support for an increased Indian role at the United Nations, without explicitly endorsing India's Security Council ambitions. However the reaction from other Council members were not very clear, thus it is uncertain whether the demands by nations will be implemented any time soon.
In nutshell, facts make it clear that, “India is now the greatest democracy in the world. It is doing a commendable humanitarian works for the downtrodden people all over world. It is one of the global powers and it thinks a capable partner in solving global problems with responsibility and dignity keeping the human value above all politics. The world should accept it as a permanent member of UNO instead of opposing it for mere political reasons.”
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