The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) is conducting written examination test in November 2018 at 20 cities across India for admission to its MBA-IB (MBA in International Business) program 2018-20 at IIFT New Delhi & IIFT Kolkata.
Language usage test will be critical in forthcoming IIFT 2018 exam hence; you should practice for Language Comprehension with expert explanation as follows:
Read the following argument carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Nihilistic atheists: “Morality” is just part of a fairy tale we tell each other in order to keep our innate,bestial selfishness (mostly) under control. Belief in objective “oughts” and “ought nots,” must fall away once we realize that there is no universal enforcer to dish out rewards and punishments in the afterlife. We’re left with pure self-interest, more or less enlightened.
Moralistic atheists: We find moral value to be immanent in the natural world, arising from the vulnerabilities of sentient beings and from the capacities of rational beings to recognize and to respond to those vulnerabilities and capacities in others. Moral value is inherent in morally valuable things. Things don’t become morally valuable because God prefers them; God prefers them because they are morally valuable.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Nihilistic atheists justify their opinion on the premise that the absence of a supreme power nullifies the logic of neglecting self-interest.
2. Moralistic atheists give more value to morals than nihilistic atheists.
3. Morality is the central idea of the ideology of Moralistic atheists.
(a) Only 1 and 3 (b) Only 1 and 2 (c) Only 2 (d) 1, 2 and 3
Nihilistic atheists believe that people behave in a morally correct manner because they feel that a supreme power that can punish or reward them exists. Nihilistic atheists justify the need to behave with self-interest if no such power exists. They imply that disbelief in the existence of God is sufficient to act according to our desires as in the absence of a supreme power there is nobody to punish or reward our acts. Hence, 1 is implicit. 2 is also implicit as moralistic atheists give more value to morals in comparison to that given by nihilistic atheists. From the discussion in the question, it is fairly clear that moralistic atheists believe that one behaves in a moral manner not because of expectation of a reward or punishment from God but because such a behavior is morally correct. They assign value to morals but whether the morality is the central idea or not is beyond the scope of the given discussion. Thus, 3 is not correct.
Hence, answer is B