English Grammar Exercises with Answers, Examples
Grammar is the fundamental component of language learning. It is the formal and standardized framework, accepted across the world. It comprises the rules and principles which determine the structure of sentences. Though, it is possible to communicate even without knowing the rudiments of grammar, knowledge of grammar is absolutely essential for mastering the language. To be able to speak and write effectively, it is essential to be aware of the structure of words and how words come together to form meaningful sentences which makes effective communication possible. The rules that govern this fall under the domain of grammar.
As grammar is a vast domain, this module on grammar is restricted to those areas that can help the MBA aspirants improve their language skills and avoid committing errors on this account. The MBA aspirants are expected to possess a reasonable level of spoken and written English skills. English is an important lingua franca of the world and that is why being proficient in it is unavoidable for MBA aspirants. Keeping this in mind, the module is divided into the following components, to help them improve their speaking and writing skills:
Subject Verb Agreement
It is one of the basic rules of English language that the Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person. The following points need to be kept in mind while framing a sentence.
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else. A preposition used in the wrong place can turn the meaning of the sentence on its head. For instance, 'Please don't shout at me: calm down and speak normally' suggests anger and 'She shouted to me from the upstairs window' suggests that someone is calling someone to be heard. Changing prepositions will change the meaning of the sentence. That's how crucial the role of preposition is.
An article is a kind of determiner which is always used with and gives some information about a noun. They specify the definiteness of the noun. There are three articles used in English language- 'a', 'an', 'the'.
Tenses play a crucial role in the English language. It denotes the time an action takes place, whether some time in the past, in the present or will take some time in the future.
This module is designed for helping the MBA aspirants grasp this crucial topic, to enable them to speak and write English correctly.
The art of communication, whether oral or written, lies in how words are brought together to form sentences. It is here that conjunctions play an important role. They are words that connect other words, phrases or clauses within a sentence. For example, 'and', 'or;, 'besides', 'also', 'because', but', 'although', 'despite', 'yet', 'however' and so on.
There are two kinds of conjunctions:
a. Co-ordinating Conjunctions-connect words, phrases, or clauses of the same rank and usually of the same kind. The chief Co-ordinating Conjunctions are: and, but, for, or, nor, also, either...or, neither...nor.
For example, "Anuj and Kalpana are friends."
"We waited an hour, but no one came."
"Neither a borrower, nor a lender be."
"Either he is mad, or he feigns madness."
"He is slow, but he is sure."
Understanding the way Co-ordinating Conjunctions work can make it easy for the aspirant to use. There are four types of Co-ordinating Conjunctions:
- Cumulative- these merely add one statement to another. For example, "God made the country and man made the town."
- Adversative- these express opposition or contrast between two statements. For example, "I was annoyed, still I kept quiet."
- Disjunctive or Alternative- these express a choice between two alternatives. For example, "Walk quickly, else you will not overtake him."
- Illative- these express an inference. For example, "All precautions must have been neglected, for the disease spread rapidly."
Q1. Fill the blank with appropriate Conjunctions:
- He fled, _____ he was afraid.
- Wait _____ I return.
- _____ you say so, I must believe it.
- You will pass _____ you work hard.
- _____ take it _____ leave it.
Clauses are the building blocks of the English language. Any sentence hat you write which has a subject (the doer of the action) and a verb (an action word) is called a clause.
You may possess good language skills and know how to express yourself in the language but without the knowledge of punctuation marks, your skills, especially written, is incomplete. A piece of writing which does include punctuation marks is difficult to read as compared to a piece of writing which carries proper punctuation marks at the right places. To make an impact on the examiner, it is important for you to take care of these little marks, to come across as a serious and professional writer. This module discusses the commonly used punctuation marks, their significance and their implementation.
i. COMMA (,)
The comma is used to indicate a short pause. It is used:
For example, "I like ice-cream" is a simple sentence made of a main clause.
a. for words, phrases, and clauses in a series.
For example, "Gandhiji, the Father of the Nation, died on 30th January, 1948.
"Apples, Mangoes and Bananas are my favourites."
"Gandhiji, who was the Father of the Nation, died on 30th January, 1948.
b. when you address a person.
For example, "Yes, Sir."
c. to separate numbers, dates and address.
For example, I was born on 9th August, 1990 in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
d. When two persons, things or other elements are contrasted, the two are separated by a comma.
For example, I meant Raj, not Robin.
e. Direct quotations are marked by comma.
For example, She said, "I'm sorry."
Q1. Punctuate the following sentences.
- i like playing with my friends sandy sunny sameer
- we went through the smoky mountains, near shimla on our way to leh
- my favourite soap is pears and my favourite toothpaste is pepsodent
- i’m a catholic and that’s why i go to st.joseph’s school
- my friend priya speaks german and she is teaching me some words
An idiom is an expression or a phrase whose meaning cannot be easily understood from the individual meanings of the words it contains. Idioms play an important part in the language as they make language richer and more colourful and convey their point subtly.