Published: Friday, 13 October, 2017 11:30 AM
Logical Reasoning ( LR ) is an integral part of IIFT, CAT, NMAT, XAT and MAT Exams. It is designed to measure a person’s ability to draw logical conclusions based on statements or arguments, and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of those arguments. It is important to keep in mind that the statements and assumptions in logical reasoning might defy your expectations rooted in the real world,
For instance, Eating a lot makes you lose weight.
Rahul has lost weight.
Rahul eats a lot.
This goes against the knowledge that eating a lot leads to obesity, but within the limits of logical reasoning, this is a valid argument.
Statements, Premises, Assumptions, Conclusion are some of the terms associated with logical reasoning and you will be tested on these in IIFT, CAT, XAT, NMAT and MAT Exams.
In logic, a statement is either a meaningful declarative sentence that is either true or false, or that which a true or false declarative sentence asserts. For instance,
‘Socrates is a mortal’, ‘Delhi is the capital of India.’
A statement is different from a sentence. A sentence is one form of a statement, whereas there may be several ways of formulating the same statement. For instance,
‘All men are mortal’
‘Every man is mortal’,
are two different sentences that form the same statement.
An assumption is an unstated premise that supports the conclusion. Both premise and assumption are unquestionable facts but the assumption, unlike the premise, is not explicitly stated and needs to be deciphered. Assumption is something that is taken for granted in the context of a statement. For instance, ‘All kids are happy when they get new gadgets. Vicky will be thrilled when he gets the new mobile phone.’ In this, the assumption is that Vicky is a kid. Without this assumption, the argument will make no sense.
3. Statement- Assumption
Questions with statements and assumptions are common in the logical reasoning section of entrance examinations such as, CAT, IIFT, XAT, MAT and NMAT. Most questions on Statement and Assumptions include a statement followed by further statements, which have to be tested for whether they are implied in the given statement or not. For instance,
a. Statement- A big retail store was attacked by vegetable vendors in Amritsar.
Assumptions- i. The store has affected the livelihood of local vegetable vendors.
ii. The store is built in thickly populated areas.
Consider the statement and decide which of the given assumption is implicit.
The answer to this will be the first assumption, because the store is affecting the vendors, which causes the attack. Assumption ii is irrelevant because nothing is mentioned regarding the location of the store.
b. Statement- “Please switch off the mobile phones while you are in the theatre”, a notice outside a theatre.
Assumption- i. Every viewer who enters the theatre keeps mobile phones.
ii. Switched on mobile phones might distract the performers.
In this, assumption ii is implied by the given statement.
Statement and assumptions are crucial concepts to understand thoroughly, for doing well in the logical reasoning section.
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